Carbon capture and utilisation or storage (CCU and CCS)

A forest and lake reflecting sky and clouds as shot from above.

By utilising carbon dioxide as a raw material we can replace fossil fuels and chemicals and produce “food without fields”. Carbon capture and storage techniques help create net negative greenhouse gas emissions. VTT offers innovative carbon capture and utilisation or storage solutions for industry, transport, electricity and heat as well as agriculture and forestry.  

Key facts

Carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) are key technologies in climate change mitigation 

Chemicals, fuels and materials can be produced without fossil resources.   

Bio-CCS is the only industrial scale carbon negative technology that can be deployed today.  

Carbon-dioxide removal is, potentially, a huge market – as well as a climate-saving enterprise. It offers a way to slow the rise of CO2 in the atmosphere – even possibly reverse it, while creating valuable materials and products from CO2. 

Currently, the global economy is too heavily based on fossil hydrocarbons, which can not be utilized in the future at the same pace as today if we want to reach climate targets. Carbon capture and utilisation (CCU), and carbon capture and storage (CCS), are the key technologies in reaching these targets, globally.  

All transport fuels and most of the chemical products could be produced by using recycled CO2 and clean hydrogen

Carbon capture and utilisation offers novel solutions to replace fossil fuels and chemicals, and produce food directly from CO2. With carbon capture and storage we can utilise fossil fuels during the transition to carbon neutral future processes. CCS can also be combined with carbon neutral CO2 sources: Capturing and storing CO2 from bio-energy or directly from the air results in net negative greenhouse gas emission from life cycle perspective. 

Innovative concepts to cut down emissions

VTT has modelled, evaluated, developed and demonstrated new innovative CCU and CCS concepts for the most important sources of global CO2 emissions. We’ve created solutions for industry, transport, electricity and heat as well as agriculture and forestry.

Results of Finnish CCS research programme coordinated by VTT

Dissertation about significant CO2 emission reductions in blast furnace based steel mills

Our solutions for Industry

  • Electric kiln for cement and lime production 
  • Concrete curing with CO2 
  • Economically feasible on-site CCU for integrated pulp and paper mills 
  • CCS in pulp mills resulting “negative emissions”  
  • Oxygen blast furnace process and post combustion CCS for steel industries 
  • Valuable products from process gases of steel industries with CCU 
  • Feasibility studies for oil and gas industries, e.g. SMR 
  • Chemicals and plastics from CO2 

Our solutions for Transport

  • CCU for power-to-fuels (PtX) to produce carbon neutral transportation fuels, such as 
    • synthetic natural gas (SNG) 
    • methanol (MeOH) 
    • Fischer-Tropsch products (FT) 
  • Large scale hydrogen production by SMR with CCS 

Our solutions for Electricity and Heat

  • Utilisation, optimisation and economic feasibility of PEM and SOEC electrolysis for 
    • produce hydrogen for CCU 
    • balancing of power system 
    • converting intermittent wind and solar power to storable carbon neutral fuels  
  • CCS by oxy-combustion (including VTT’s pilot scale CFB) 
  • CCU and CCS in CHP systems 
  • “Negative emissions” with bioenergy and CCS (bio-CCS, BECCS) 
  • Power from waste heat utilising CO2 as a working fluid 

Our solutions for Agriculture and Forestry

  • CO2 capture as endotoxin-free microbial protein for food and feed 
  • Food grade CO2 by Direct Air Capture (DAC) and CO2 capture from ventilation 
  • Solutions to enhance carbon sinks in forestry and soils 
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