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Wood based textile fibres

Technologies for dissolving cellulose for the production of regenerated man-made fibre materials

Responding to the increased demand for sustainable textile fibres VTT has developed technologies for dissolving cellulose for the production of regenerated man-made fibre materials:
  • Cellulose carbamate technology has been further developed, and the chemical efficiency has been improved by means of high consistency technology.
  • We have capabilities to produce viscose fibers in bench scale e.g. to evaluate new raw materials.
  • We develop also BioCelSol process.


Wood-based fibre materials find a use in replacement of both polyester and cotton. Find sustainable cellulose-based fibre materials for your textiles with us.

The carbamate technology of VTT

So far, carbamate production technology has been tested on a semi industrial production scale, and various applications have been tested on industrial pilot-scale systems. The missing link to continuous operations is the producer of carbamate cellulose. An ideal player for this role is an existing pulping mill which requires minor investments for carbamate production. In a fibre spinning mill no substantial investments are needed.

VTT has developed Carbamate Technology (called CCA) now for more than 10 years. The production process takes place in a dry state (dry material content > 50%) and is a solvent-free clean technology. CCA is a stable intermediate product and realizes plastic like flexible production.

Product and process are tested in industrial scale pilots for fibre spinning, film casting and sausage casings.
CCA technology opens new possibilities for the enhanced properties of hybrid material systems.
In the recent past there has been clear progress in the mechanical strength of fibres – the viscose modal properties could be achieved without excessive chemical usage – and in chemical dosing efficiency. Now the urea feeding is so low that in most applications no urea washing is needed.

Collaborating partners

The basic R&D was done by a contract agreement with an industrial partner in 2002–2006. The relevant patents were released at that time. More recently, the technique has been applied for recycled paper and board-based cellulose.

The main collaborators are Tampere University of Technology (lab scale fibre spinning, some analytics), MTT Agrifood Research Finland and KCL Keskuslaboratorio (analytics).

Our industrial collaborators work in pulping and cellulose derivatives, fibre spinning, sausage casings, special webs and films.

Our first target is the viscose industry which is looking for conversion to clean production techniques.

Potential applications (outside viscose replacements) exist in clean technology, i.e. the recovery of heavy metals and other harmful substances, and in energy technology, i.e. separator films in chemical power sources.