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BIORUUKKI pilot centre


VTT Bioruukki pilot centre piloting pyrolysis


​Unique innovation and demonstration platform for bio- and circular economy businesses

We can help you solve your innovation challenges. With all the required expertise, modelling and piloting capability under one roof, VTT delivers optimal solutions, from initial development to end product.

Bioruukki supports business opportunities in:

  • Low carbon energy solutions
  • Efficient biomass refining
  • New biomass-based products
  • Recycling and waste utilisation
  • Sustainable chemicals


In the first stage gasification and pyrolysis research activities will be started in Bioruukki. Expanding in to other research areas will be realised in the coming years.



Bioruukki pilot centre offers:​

Thermochemical conversion

We develop new and sustainable technologies for the production of bio-based chemicals and low carbon energy. We offer services from techno-economical concept development and foresight, lab and pilot scale experimental work and process development to industrial demonstration support.


​​​Fast pyrolysis-conversion of biomass to bio-oil

Our strength is the critical mass of persons representing development (experimental and modelling), analytics, and technical services. We also operate a unique fast pyrolysis pilot plant, which may be used to help scaling-up processes

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​​​Gasification of biomass and waste 

A major part of our activities is related to process development work, which we are able to carry out at laboratory- and pilot-scales with our unique test facilities and world-class expertise.

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​​​CFD modelling 

We have over 30 years experience of the application and development of Computational Fluid Dynamics  (CFD) modelling tools for combustion and industrial multiphase flows. We have combined in an innovative way various modelling approaches with CFD.

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​​​Catalyst R&D for syngas cleaning and upgrading 

We have excellent facilities for catalyst preparation, characterisation and testing, as well as long experience in optimal catalyst and process condition screening and in catalyst development.

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Sustainable chemistry

Engage VTT to create competitive advantage for you with economically solid, environmentally sound and technologically outperforming chemical solutions. Optimise the use of raw materials, eco-efficient processes and waste.

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​​​Chemical pilots 

VTT's chemical pilots have a unique combination of multi-purpose pilot-scale reactors integrated to versatile downstream processing units.

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​​​Additives in polymer matrix 

VTT has a versatile pilot environment for plastic processing where precise control of nanodispersions enable tailoring of material properties. The key is the understanding of chemical and physical interactions in the polymer–additive interface.

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​​​Green solvents 

VTT's know-how covers whole research chain; from synthesis of DESs to their use in applications as such, and with enzymes as well their recovery to original components.

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Our core competence covers the whole polysaccharide value chain from the selection of raw materials to the most relevant modifications and properties for all polysaccharides, such as thermoplasticity, charge, hydrophobicity, compatibility and solubility.

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​​​Smart materials

VTT has long experience in dendritic and self-assembling materials, including molecular capsules and other functionalized materials.

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​​​Synthesis toolkit

VTT develops industrially viable chemical synthesis technologies so as to generate value-added chemical products: sustainable, functional and cost-competitive

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Biomass processing

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​​​Textile fibre spinning

VTTs versatile facilities and skilled personnel enable effective development and scale-up of new textile fibre processing technologies and concepts.

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​​​Biomass fractionation and pulping 

We can help you to develop your biomass processing concept towards a more efficient and environmentally sound process, and to produce specialty pulps or new types of industrial raw materials from a variety of biomass sources.

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​​​Nanocellulose film 

We cover to the whole production chain of nanocellulose – from the selection of raw materials to the development of the production process and modification of nanocellulose material according to the needs of various applications.

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​​​Cellulose dissolution technique 

VTT´s dissolution technology is an environmentally friendly solution for turning discarded textiles into a new fiber source for the textile industry. Used textiles, not recyclable by other means, can replace cotton and man-made fibers with no compromise in quality.

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Process concept modelling

We can quickly and efficiently provide accurate information for various process industry needs for investment decision making, process development and problem solving. Optimising and troubleshooting processes with simulation tools is shortcut to successful realisation of solutions.


​​​CFD modelling 

We have over 30 years experience of the application and development of Computational Fluid Dynamics  (CFD) modelling tools for combustion and industrial multiphase flows. We have combined in an innovative way various modelling approaches with CFD.

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​​​Process modelling 

Our focus is in modelling different pulping and biorefinery processes, food and beverage production and novel bio and chemical product production systems including side-stream and water purification and valorisation technologies.

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​​​Techno-economic feasibility of new concepts

VTT links economic considerations to process design from an early stage, iterating as the work progresses.

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Discover what collaboration with VTT can achieve:


​Our innovation accelerator lowers your risk

VTT has a long history of helping industrial partners to create and develop new process concepts—from the initial idea through the laboratory phase to industrial pilot demonstrations. With Bioruukki, VTT can help companies to accelerate their global market launches.

The flexible research and pilot project infrastructure in the 10.000 m 2 of Bioruukki offers a world-class platform for scale-up and demonstrations, as well as for small-scale manufacturing.

Make use of Bioruukki’s process equipment for your pilot program to avoid the set-up costs of in-house pilots. VTT’s considerable body of existing knowledge as well as 500 experts are at your disposal.

Bioruukki is seamlessly connected to other VTT pilots in biotechnology and biomaterials.

An international and networked hub of excellence

There is a significant community of sector specialists among the companies and research institutes at Otaniemi Technology Hub and in the capital region. Finland is an ideal location for your pilot programs.

We offer to our clients and research partners an international innovation ecosystem. VTT is an active player in EU Horizon 2020 initiatives and projects, and a partner in key European pilot program networks.

​​​​​​Let’s talk

We invite you to meet with us so that we can gain a better understanding of the most important challenges you are facing and how we can help you to solve them.



​360° VIRTUAL TOUR  of VTT´s Rajamäki and Otaniemi ATEX-piloting environments, which will be transferred to Bioruukki.


​Integrated fast pyrolysis bio oil production plant

Customer: Fortum Power and Heat Oy

Challenge: Create the world’s first integrated bio oil production plant & demonstrate the viability of bio oil as a replacement for fossil fuels in heat production

Solution: VTT’s patented process integrates a fluidized-bed boiler with pyrolysis. Produced in this way, bio-oil is more cost-efficient than when produced in a separate pyrolysis process

Key benefits:

  • A short timeline from research to demonstration
  • Replacement of fossil fuel in the generation of heat and power
  • Efficient use of forestry waste streams


Forest biomass to liquid transportation fuels

Customer: NSE Biofuels Oy (Neste Corporation & Stora Enso Oyj)

Challenge: Convert forest biomass into liquid (BtL) transportation fuels

Solution: VTT carried out R&D activities in the area of gasification, gas filtration and the reforming of tars and hydrocarbon gases. We also brought our significant expertise in gasification and gas cleaning to bear

Key benefits:

  • Added value to the overall process concept
  • Closing in on a replacement for fossil transportation fuels


Gasification-based waste-to-energy power plant

Customer: Lahti Energia Oy

Challenge: Convert solid recovered fuel (SRF) to energy by means of advanced gasification technology

Solution: VTT has researched and developed gasification together with Lahti Energia. With VTT’s support the company is able to convert 250,000 metric tons of SRF to electricity and heat on an annual basis, generating 50 MW of electricity and 90 MW of heat

Key benefits:

  • High electricity production efficiency and overall efficiency (power and heat)
  • Significant reduction of fossil fuel use and net CO2 emissions 


A new industrial dry modification process for starch-based paper chemicals

Customer: Chemigate Oy

Challenge: Cost-effectively produce new types of chemically modified starch materials.

Solution: VTT acted as a specialist in starch modification chemistry, scaling up production recipes at their pilot plant

Key benefits:

  • Notable increase in production efficiency
  • Produced viable new starch materials for use as bio-based paper coating binders and paper strength enhancers


Thermal/catalytic fast pyrolysis, bio-oil upgrading


Onarheim, Kristian, Solantausta, Yrjö, Lehto, Jani. 2015. Process simulation development of fast pyrolysis of wood using aspen plus: ACS Publications. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 205-217 doi:10.1021/ef502023y

Paasikallio, Ville, Kihlman, Johanna, Sanchez Sanchez, Cesar Andres, Simell, Pekka, Solantausta, Yrjö, Lehtonen, Juha. 2015. Steam reforming of pyrolysis oil aqueous fraction obtained by one-step fractional condensation: Elsevier. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 40, No. 8, pp. 3149-3157 doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.01.025

Sundqvist, Tom, Oasmaa, Anja, Koskinen, Ari, Upgrading fast pyrolysis bio-oil quality by simultaneous esterification and azeotropic water removal, Accepted to Energy & Fuels 2015.

Lindfors, Christian; Kuoppala, Eeva; Oasmaa, Anja; Solantausta, Yrjö; Arpiainen, Vesa. 2014. Fractionation of bio-oil. Energy & Fuels. American Chemical Society, vol. 28, 9, ss. 5785 – 5791 doi:10.1021/ef500754d

Paasikallio, Ville, Lindfors, Christian, Kuoppala, Eeva, Solantausta, Yrjö, Oasmaa, Anja, Lehto, Jani, Lehtonen, J. 2014. Product quality and catalyst deactivation in a four day catalytic fast pyrolysis production run: Royal Society of Chemistry. Green Chemistry, Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 3549 – 3559 doi:10.1039/C4GC00571F

Paasikallio, Ville, Agblevor, F., Oasmaa, Anja, Lehto, Jani, Lehtonen, Juha. 2013. Catalytic pyrolysis of forest thinnings with ZSM-5 catalysts: Effect of reaction temperature on bio-oil physical properties and chemical composition: American Chemical Society. Energy and Fuels, Vol. 27, No. 12, pp. 7587 – 7601 doi:10.1021/ef401947f

Paasikallio, Ville, Lindfors, Christian, Lehto, Jani, Oasmaa, Anja, Reinikainen, Matti. 2013. Short vapour residence time catalytic pyrolysis of spruce sawdust in a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor with HZSM-5 catalysts: Springer. Topics in Catalysis, Vol. 56, No. 9-10, pp. 800 – 812 doi:10.1007/s11244-013-0037-y

Meier, D., van de Beld, B., Bridgwater, A.V., Elliott, D.C., Oasmaa, Anja, Preto, F.. 2013. State-of-the-art of fast pyrolysis in IEA bioenergy member countries: Elsevier. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 20, pp. 619 – 641 doi:10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.061

Elliott, D.C., Hart, T.R., Neuenschwander, G.G., Rotness, L.J., Olarte, M.V., Zacher, A.H., Solantausta, Yrjö. 2012. Catalytic hydroprocessing of fast pyrolysis bio-oil from pine sawdust: ACS. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 3891 – 3896 doi:10.1021/ef3004587

Solantausta, Yrjö, Oasmaa, Anja, Sipilä, Kai, Lindfors, Christian, Lehto, J., Autio, J., Jokela, P., Alin, J., Heiskanen, J.. 2012. Bio-oil production from biomass: Steps toward demonstration: ACS. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 233-240 doi:10.1021/ef201109t

Venderbosch, R.H., Ardiyanti, A.R., Wildschut, J., Oasmaa, Anja, Heeres, H.J.. 2010. Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils: SCI, Society of Chemical Industry. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, Vol. 85, No. 5, pp. 674-686

Lehto, Jani, Jokela, Pekka, Oasmaa, Anja, Solantausta, Yrjö. 2010. Integrated heat, electricity and bio-oil production. Biofuels Innovator, No. Spring 2010, pp. 20 – 22

Oasmaa, Anja, Solantausta, Yrjö, Arpiainen, Vesa, Kuoppala, Eeva, Sipilä, Kai. 2010. Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oils from Wood and Agricultural Residues. Energy & Fuels, No. 24, pp. 1380-1388 doi:10.1021/ef901107f

McKeough, Paterson, Solantausta, Yrjö, Kyllönen, Hilkka, Faaij, Andre, Hamelinck, Carlo, Wagener, Martijn, Beckman, David, Kjellström, Björn. 2005. Techno-economic analysis of biotrade chains. Upgraded biofuels from Russia and from Canada to the Netherlands (Techno-economic analysis of biotrade chains. Upgraded biofuels from Russia and from Canada to the Netherlands). VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes: 2312, Espoo, VTT Processes, 40 p. + app. 25 p. ISBN 951-38-6745-5, 951-38-6746-3 T2312.pdf

Oasmaa, Anja, Kuoppala, Eeva, Selin, Johan-Fredrik, Gust, Steven, Solantausta, Yrjö. 2004. Fast Pyrolysis of Forestry Residue and Pine. 4. Improvement of the Product Quality by Solvent Addition. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 1578 – 1583 doi:10.1021/ef040038n

Oasmaa, Anja, Kuoppala, Eeva, Solantausta, Yrjö, Gust, Steven. 2003. Fast Pyrolysis of Forestry Residue. 1. Effect of Extractives on Phase Separation of Pyrolysis Liquids. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 1 - 12doi:10.1021/ef020088x

Solantausta, Yrjö. 2000. Cost and performance analysis of new wood-fuelled power plant concepts. Doctoral dissertation: University of Aston in Birmingham. Solantausta, Yrjö, Podesser, Erich, Beckman, David, Östman, Anders, Overend, Ralph P. 2000. IEA Bioenergy Task 22: Techno-economic assessments for bioenergy applications 1998-1999. Final report. VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes: 2024, Espoo, VTT Energy, 241 p. ISBN 951-38-5655-0, 951-38-5656-9 T2024.pdf


Bio-oil applications


Lehto, Jani, Oasmaa, Anja, Solantausta, Yrjö, Kytö, M., Chiaramonti, D.. 2014. Review of fuel oil quality and combustion of fast pyrolysis bio-oils from lignocellulosic biomass: Elsevier. Applied Energy, Vol. 116, No. March, pp. 178 – 190 doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.11.040

Lehto, Jani, Oasmaa, Anja, Solantausta, Yrjö, Kytö, Matti, Chiaramonti, David. 2013. Fuel oil quality and combustion of fast pyrolysis bio-oils. VTT Technology: 87, Espoo, VTT, 79 p. ISBN 978-951-38-7929-7 (Soft back ed.), 978-951-38-7930-3 T87.pdf

Chiaramontia, D., Oasmaa, Anja, Solantausta, Yrjö, Peacocke, C.. 2007. The use of biomass derived fast pyrolysis liquids in power generation: Engines and turbines. Power Engineer, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 3 - 25

Chiaramonti, David, Oasmaa, Anja, Solantausta, Yrjö. 2007. Power generation using fast pyrolysis liquids from biomass. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 1056 – 1086 doi:10.1016/j.rser.2005.07.008

Oasmaa, Anja, Peacocke, Cordner, Gust, Steven, Meier, Dietrich, McLellan, Richard. 2005. Norms and Standards for Pyrolysis Liquids. End-User Requirements and Specifications. Energy & Fuels , Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 2155-2163 doi:10.1021/ef040094o


Characterisation and standardisation


Oasmaa, Anja, Bert van de Beld, Pia Saari, Douglas C. Elliott, Yrjö Solantausta. Norms, Standards & Legislation for Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oils. Accepted to Energy & Fuels 2015.

Elliot, D.C., Oasmaa, Anja, Meier, D., Preto, F, Bridgewater, A.V.. 2012. Results of the IEA Round Robin on Viscosity and Aging of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils: Long-Term Tests and Repeatability. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 26, No. 12, pp. 7362 – 7366 doi:10.1021/ef301607v

Oasmaa, Anja, Källi, Anssi, Lindfors, Christian, Elliott, D.C., Springer, D., Peacocke, C., Chiaramonti, D.. 2012. Guidelines for transportation, handling, and use of fast pyrolysis bio-oil. 1. Flammability and toxicity. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 3864 – 3873 doi:10.1021/ef300418d

Elliott, D.C., Oasmaa, Anja, Preto, F., Meier, D., Bridgwater, A.V.. 2012. Results of the IEA Round Robin on Viscosity and Aging of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 3769 – 3776 doi:10.1021/ef300384t

Oasmaa, Anja, Kuoppala, Eeva, Elliott, Douglas, C.. 2012. Development of the basis for an analytical protocol for feeds and products of bio-oil hydrotreatment: ACS. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 2454-2460 doi:10.1021/ef300252y

Oasmaa, Anja, Korhonen, Jaana, Kuoppala, Eeva. 2011. An approach for stability measurement of wood-based fast pyrolysis bio-oils: ACS Publications. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 25, No. 7, pp. 3307-3313 doi:10.1021/ef2006673

Oasmaa, Anja, Peacocke, Cordner. 2010. A guide to physical property characterisation of biomass-derived fast pyrolysis liquids. A guide. VTT Publications: 731, Espoo, VTT, 79 p. + app. 46 p. ISBN 978-951-38-7384-4 P731.pdf

Oasmaa, Anja, Elliott, Douglas, C., Korhonen, Jaana. 2010. Acidity of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils: American Chemical Society. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 24, pp. 6548-6554 doi:10.1021/ef100935r

Oasmaa, Anja, Kuoppala, Eeva, Ardiyanti, A., Venderbosch, R.H., and Heeres, H.J.. 2010. Characterization of Hydrotreated Fast Pyrolysis Liquids: American Chemical Society. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 24, No. 9, pp. 5264-5272 doi:10.1021/ef100573q

Torri, C., Adamiano, A., Fabbri, D., Lindfors, Christian, Monti, A., Oasmaa, Anja. 2010. Comparative analysis of pyrolysate from herbaceous and woody energy crops by Py-GC with atomic emission and mass spectrometric detection. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, Vol. 88, No. 2, pp. 175 – 180 doi:10.1016/j.jaap.2010.04.003

Torri, C., Reinikainen, Matti, Lindfors, Christian, Fabbri, D., Oasmaa, Anja, Kuoppala, Eeva. 2010. Investigation on catalytic pyrolysis of pine sawdust: Catalyst screening by Py-GC-MIP-AED. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, No. 88, pp. 7-13 doi:10.1016/j.jaap.2010.02.005

Oasmaa, Anja, Meier, D.. 2009. Norms and Standards. United Kingdom: CPL Scientific Publishing Services Ltd. Chapter 4 in:Bridgwater, A.V., Hofbauer, H. and van Loo, S. (Eds.), ThermalBiomass Conversion, pp. 79-93. ISBN 978-1-872691-53-4

Oasmaa, Anja, Elliott, D.C., & Müller, S.. 2009. Quality Control in Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production and Use. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 404 – 409 doi:10.1002/ep.10382

Fonts, I., Kuoppala, Eeva, Oasmaa, Anja. 2009. Physicochemical properties of product liquid from pyrolysis of sewage sludge. Energy and Fuels, Vol. 23, No. 8, pp. 4121-4128 doi:10.1021/ef900300n

Oasmaa, Anja, Kuoppala, Eeva. 2008. Solvent Fractionation Method with Brix for Rapid Characterization of Wood Fast Pyrolysis Liquids. Energy Fuels, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 4245 - 4248

Fratini, Emiliano, Bonini, Massimo, Oasmaa, Anja, Solantausta, Yrjö, Teixeira, Jose, Baglioni, Piero. 2006. SANS Analysis of the Microstructural Evolution during the Aging of Pyrolysis Oils from Biomass. Langmuir, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 306 – 312 doi:10.1021/la051990a

Oasmaa, Anja, Meier, Dietrich. 2005. Norms and standards for fast pyrolysis liquids 1. Round robin test. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, Vol. 73, No. 2, pp. 323 – 334 doi:10.1016/j.jaap.2005.03.003

Oasmaa, Anja, Meier, Dietrich. 2005. Characterisation, analysis, norms & standards: Aston University, Bio-Energy Research Group. Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: A Handbook. Vol. 3. A.V. Bridgwater (ed.), pp. 19 - 60. ISBN 1-872691-92-7

Oasmaa, Anja, Sipilä, Kai, Solantausta, Yrjö, Kuoppala, Eeva. 2005. Quality improvement of pyrolysis liquid: Effect of light volatiles on the stability of pyrolysis liquids. Energy Fuels, Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 2556 – 2561 doi:10.1021/ef0400924

Gust, S., McLellan, R.J., Oasmaa, Anja, Ormrod, D., Peacocke, G.V.C.. 2005. Determination of norms and standards for bio-oil as an alternative renewable fuel for electricity and heat production: Aston University, Bio-Energy Research Group. Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: A Handbook. Vol. 3. A.V. Bridgwater (ed.), pp. 9 - 18. ISBN 1-872691-92-7

Oasmaa, Anja. 2003. Fuel oil quality properties of wood-based pyrolysis liquids. Academic dissertation. Research Report Series, Report: 99, Jyväskylä, Department of Chemistry, University of Jyväskylä, 32 p. + app. 251 p. ISBN 951-39-1572-7

Oasmaa, Anja, Kuoppala, Eeva, Solantausta, Yrjö. 2003. Fast Pyrolysis of Forestry Residue. 2. Physicochemical Composition of Product Liquid. Energy and fuels, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 433 – 443 doi:10.1021/ef020206g

Oasmaa, Anja, Kuoppala, Eeva. 2003. Fast Pyrolysis of Forestry Residue. 3. Storage Stability of Liquid Fuel. Energy & Fuels, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 1075 – 1084 doi:10.1021/ef030011o

Oasmaa, Anja, Meier, Dietrich. 2002. Pyrolysis liquids analyses - The results of IEA-EU Round Robin. Chippenham: Aston University, Bio-Energy Research Group. Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: A Handbook. Bridgwater, A. (ed.). Vol. 2, pp. 41 - 58. ISBN 1-872691-47-1

Oasmaa, Anja, Meier, Dietrich. 2002. Analysis, characterisation and test methods of fast pyrolysis. Chippenham: Aston University, Bio-Energy Research Group. Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: A Handbook. Bridgwater, A. (ed.). Vol. 2, pp. 23 - 35. ISBN 1-872691-47-1

Oasmaa, Anja, Peacocke, Cordner. 2001. A guide to physical property characterisation of biomass-derived fast pyrolysis liquids. VTT Publications: 450, Espoo, VTT Energy, 65 p. + app. 34 ISBN 951-38-5878-2, 951-38-6365-4 P450.pdf

​Gasification infra




Pyrolysis infra