VTT White paper

Overcoming bottlenecks in green energy transition

Full of potential, but also presenting complex challenges, what does green energy transition require from companies? VTT's new guide presents five bottlenecks and the latest solutions to make the change successful.

Our energy system is facing an inevitable transition: fighting against climate change requires cleaner and more affordable energy production, as well as finding more efficient ways to distribute and use energy.

A new energy system is already developing rapidly, and companies want to move towards the growth opportunities. However, the journey is not without challenges.

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About content

Five bottlenecks and how to solve them include: 

  1. New dynamics challenge the operation of the energy system
  2. Conflicts between sustainability impacts
  3. Integration and complexity are challenging our energy resilience
  4. Limited availability of critical raw materials slows down the green transition
  5. Today's decisions will impact future generation

The 45-page guide presents three solutions for each of these. For each solution, we describe the practical actions with timetables for putting the solutions into use and bringing them to the market.

From resilient districts and building-as-a-battery concepts to hydrogen and SMR for local energy production, this guide is based on world-class research and innovation from VTT together with its specialist partners.

Future-proof your strategy for the green transition.

power lines and tower in sunset light


Tuula Mäkinen – Lead, Green electrification

Antti Arasto – Vice President, Industrial energy and hydrogen

Jussi Manninen – Executive Vice President, Carbon neutral solutions

We have compiled this publication using the contributions of several experts of VTT.


  • Ari Aalto – Vice President, Mobility and transport
  • Edgar Bohner – Vice President, Smart energy and built environment
  • Olli Himanen – Research Team Leader, Hydrogen production
  • Kirsi Hyytinen – Research Team Leader, Future-proof societies
  • Heidi Kirppu – Senior Scientist, Urban energy systems
  • Päivi Kivikytö-Reponen – Research Team Leader, Industrial circular economy
  • Tomi Lindroos – Research Team Leader, Sustainable material design
  • Kari Mäki – Research Professor, Smart energy systems
  • Sampo Mäkikouri – Research Scientist, Carbon-efficient industry
  • Kaarle Mäkinen – Business Development Manager, Carbon neutral solutions
  • Tommi Nyman – Lead, LDR Commercialisation
  • Mikko Pihlatie – Research Professor, Electrification of transport
  • Eetu Pilli-Sihvola – Lead, Digitalisation of transport
  • Pekka Pohjanne – Lead, Materials for new energy technologies
  • Elina Raivio – Head of Business Development, Carbon neutral solutions
  • Petra Raussi – Senior Scientist, Smart grids
  • Jari Shemeikka – Research Team Leader, Urban energy systems
  • Eemeli Tsupari – Principal Scientist, Carbon-efficient industry
  • Ville Tulkki – Lead, SMR technologies
  • Laura Wendling – Research Team Leader, Nature-based solutions