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Improve the resilience of critical infrastructures


Due to networked world and complex systems, also critical infrastructures have turned to be more vulnerable and fragile, and even more critical. The operators need to be able to manage effectively the external risks, taking into account the combination of both physical and cyber risks. Being prepared also for the intentional malicious attacks minimizes disruptions and ensures continuity.

How to improve risk assessment of critical infrastructures?

The risk assessment method tailored for customer's specific needs ensure comprehensive management of disruptions. VTT has a deep knowhow on applying of novel risk assessment and continuity management methods for diverse business environments such as water supply, transport, hospitals and border control for several decades.

Our customers get profit from:

  • Systematic identification of critical operations and functions
  • Formulating threat scenarios
  • Evaluation of internal and external threats
  • Definition of requirements for preparedness and recovery
  • Planning mitigation actions
  • Planning preparedness and response for disturbances
  • Planning monitoring means and metrics
  • Supporting continual improvement
  • Supporting internal communication

What are the benefits for anticipating external risks?

  • Reduce the amount of disturbances
  • Strengthen business continuity
  • Minimise administrative operations by harmonising risk assesment with risk management tools
  • Improve internal communication of threats and risks
  • Provide better understanding of costs
  • Choose effective mitigation measures
  • Smooth running of infrastructure and quick recovery when facing any disturbances
  • Save money and human resources due to faster return to normal conditions





​Conference papers

Helminen, A., & Hakkarainen, T. (2017). Modelling approach for the threat quantification of cascading failures. In Nordic Fire & Safety Days (NFSD): Book of Abstracts [10] RISE Research Institutes of Sweden - link

Helminen, A., & Hakkarainen, T. (2017). Practical modelling approach for assessing cascading effects of critical infrastructures. In SRA Nordic 2017 Abstracts Aalto University.  - link

Journal articles

Tuominen, R., Helppolainen, N., Ihonen, J., & Viitakangas, J. (2018). Probabilistic risk model for assessing hydrogen fuel contamination effects in automotive FC systems. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy- link

Räikkönen, M., Molarius, R., Mäki, K., Forssén, K., Petiet, P., & Nieuwenhuijs, A. (2017). Creating stakeholder value through risk mitigation Measures in the context of disaster management. Infrastructures, 2(4), [14]. - link

Eid, M., Kling, T., Hakkarainen, T., Barbarin, Y., Grangeat, A., & Serafin, D. (2016). Cascading Failures: Dynamic Model for CIP Purposes: Case of Random Independent Failures Following Poisson Stochastic Process. In Critical Information Infrastructures Security (pp. 326-331). (Lecture Notes in Computer Science LNCS; Vol. 8985). Springer. - link

Heikkilä, A.-M., Molarius, R., & Uusitalo, T. (2011) Vulnerability of complex critical systems: case water supply and distribution networks. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 15(2/3), 241-257. - link

Other publications

Molarius, R., Wessberg, N., Keränen, J., & Murtonen, M. (2017). Foresight in Sight: How to improve urban resilience with collaboration among public authorities? In Urban Disaster Resilience and Security: Addressing Risks in Society (pp. 397 - 412). (The Urban Book Series). Springer. - link

Walther, G., Jovanovic, M., Vollmer, M., Desmond, G., Choudhary, A., Auerkari, P., ... et al. (2017). Report on challenges for SCIs. (Smart Resilience Indicators for Smart Critical Infrastructures). European Commission EC. - link

Øien, K., Bodsberg, L., Hoem, Å., Øren, T., Molarius, R., Koivisto, R., ... et al. (2017). Supervised RIsx: Defining resilience indicators based on risk assessment. (Smart Resilience Indicators for Smart Critical Infrastructures). European Commission EC. - link

Molarius, R., Keränen, J., Sarsama, J., & Poussa, L. (2017). Enhancing risk awareness of new and emerging technology implementation, case circular economy. In J. Paasi (Ed.), Towards a new era in manufacturing: Final report of VTT's For Industry spearhead programme (pp. 165-168). (VTT Technology; Vol. 288). VTT. - link

Molarius, R., Wessberg, N., & Keränen, J. (2016). Participatory scenario building: A tool for city planners. (VTT Technology; Vol. 259). Espoo: VTT. - link

Horsmanheimo, S., Piira, K., Molarius, R., Tuomimäki, L., & Maskey, N. (2015). Improved city resilience against winter storms. In Smart City (pp. 106-107). (VTT Research Highlights; No. 12). VTT. - link


You'll find more information on publications and other research activities on VTT's Research Information Portal.