There are many old and decrepit residential buildings in Moscow in need of
refurbishment. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed three
repair concepts for improv-ing the energy efficiency of both buildings and
entire residential districts while also reduc-ing their environmental impact.
Calculations show that it would be possible to reduce heat-ing demand in
buildings by up to 70%. Even minor repairs can achieve significant energy
Most of the residential buildings in Moscow were built after the Second World
War. Many of them are in poor shape and waste a lot of energy. VTT conducted a
pilot study in a typical Moscow resi-dential district, with a population of
VTT developed three repair concepts for improving the energy efficiency of
both buildings and the district as a whole while also reducing their
environmental impact. These concepts address not only energy consumption and
water consumption solutions but also the processing of waste generated in the
district. The findings of the study may be leveraged in determining the goals
for repairs. However, impact assessment for repairs will require in-depth
financial analyses to be conducted.
The basic concept developed by VTT for residential apartment buildings in
Moscow incorporates affordable and easily implemented minimum repairs. Even
the simplest of repairs could reduce the heating energy consumption in these
buildings by about 40%. The improved repair concept can result in even better
energy efficiency or eco-efficiency. The advanced repair concept is the most
progressive of the three concepts presented. Calculations show that it would
be possible to reduce heating energy consumption in buildings by up to 70%,
and of electricity by about 25%. In practice, this involves for example
improving heat insulation, installing heat recovery equipment in ventilation
systems and improving water systems.
Because improving energy efficiency in individual buildings would not
necessarily reduce the ener-gy consumption of the district as a whole, VTT
also developed three concepts for improving eco-efficiency in residential
districts. In these concepts, the focus is on analysing energy production
options, improving energy, water and waste water networks, improving waste
management and improving outdoor lighting. Significant energy savings may be
achieved at the district level using the repair scenarios presented. These
savings may amount to nearly 40% in electricity demand and more than 70% in
heating demand. Emissions analyses show that replacing natural gas with biogas
in energy production would reduce carbon dioxide emissions but would increase
sulphur dioxide and particulate emissions. A better solution would be to
produce energy using renewable energy technologies such as geothermal heat
pumps, solar panels, solar collectors or wind turbines; all of these would
reduce overall emissions.
Currently, water consumption in Moscow is 272 litres per resident per day.
Implementing a variety of new solutions would theoretically allow this to be
brought down as far as to 100 litres, although this is a tough goal to meet.
At present, more than 60% of the community waste generated in resi-dential
districts ends up at a landfill, while just under a third is incinerated and
about 10% recycled. Developing waste management processes would allow the
reuse rate to be increased to more than 75%. This would require not only
infrastructure development but active waste recycling procedures adopted by
Statistics published by Rosstat indicate that there are some 40,000
residential buildings in Moscow, with a total of nearly 4 million homes. Of
this residential building stock, 52% was built between 1945 and 1975.
The VTT study was funded by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.