The increased requirements on efficient production of clean energy have
introduced the necessity to develop new power plant concepts. The basic
functionality of the new ideas is tested in small scale pilot plants. Advanced
ICT tools based on numerical calculations are, however, needed to evaluate the
application to full scope plants in advance. VTT Technical Research Centre of
Finland and the energy company Fortum have for these purposes released a new
version 5.09 of Apros (Advanced process simulation software).
Apros is already widely used for dependable analysis of combustion and nuclear
power plants in particular but also of other industrial processes. Even the
most difficult process failures can be simulated by using this software.
simulation software is the result of a quarter century’s development work by
VTT experts in co-operation with Fortum, and it is already used in 26
Apros version 5.09 brings several new features for its end users. The separate
phase thermal hydraulics calculation (6-equation model) of Apros has now been
extended to cover all parts of the steam and water circuits, including the
turbine sector models. Also non-condensable gases can be included in these
circuits, enabling e.g. for studies of starting up operations from cold
shutdown with only gases in the circuits. Material properties of air and flue
gas circuits have been extended to include liquid oxygen, nitrogen and carbon
dioxide to allow simulation of oxygen production and carbon capture processes.
Apros also introduces a new fluidized bed combustion component that can be
used for modeling of both bubbling and circulating bed combustors.
Furthermore, the modeling of different types of desalination plants has been
improved. Apros is able to simulate accurately multi-stage flash distillation,
reverse osmosis and multiple-effect evaporators. Apros provides a large
library of blocks for elementary model building enabling the user to
graphically specify extensive process component models in detail. Model
specifications can be written to ASCII-files using the versatile model
specification language of Apros and easily transported to new Apros software
versions, computer hardware or operation systems. The specification language
enables interconnection of Apros to other design tools and especially to new
semantic design databases of both processes and control systems.
Product Manager Janne Liuko from Fortum says: “In Finnish nuclear industry,
Apros has been exploited in independent analysis calculations of the EPR plant
under construction in Olkiluoto and in designing and testing of new digital
automation systems for the Loviisa VVER plants. Other full-scope Apros-based
simulators have been developed to replicate nuclear power plants of Russian,
Swedish and Chinese design. As well as a design tool for prominent contractors
and engineering agencies, Apros is used to train operators and engineers on
how the processes and full scale power plants operate.”
According to the main designer of the Apros software, Dr Kaj Juslin from VTT,
Apros is continuously developed to suite analysis needs of evolving new types
of power plants such as clean combustion power plants as well as generation IV
nuclear power plants.
The quality of each new Apros version is thoroughly verified and validated.
Along the way, numerous end users have given valuable feedback and new goals
to the developers. A new software product - Apros Testing Station - will soon
be available. It supports easy comparisons of simulation runs to measured
transients. It makes the validation and regression testing of new Apros models
very efficient. It has also been used for managing the simulation assisted
testing of digital automation systems. The Apros Instructors Station software,
on the other hand, supports the instructors in training simulator applications
to plan new training sessions and to supervise ongoing simulator training.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is the biggest contract
research organization in Northern Europe. VTT provides high-end technology
solutions and innovation services. From its wide knowledge base, VTT can
combine different technologies, create new innovations and a substantial range
of world-class technologies and applied research services, thus improving its
clients' competitiveness and competence. Through its international scientific
and technology network, VTT can produce information, upgrade technology
knowledge and create business intelligence and value added to its
stakeholders. The budgeted turnover for 2010 was EUR 276 million and the
number of personnel was 2,935 in the beginning of 2010. VTT
Fortum's purpose is to create energy that
improves life for present and future generations. Fortum provide sustainable
solutions that fulfill the needs for low emissions, resource efficiency and
energy security, and deliver excellent value to the shareholders. Fortum's
activities cover the generation, distribution and sale of electricity and heat
as well as the operation and maintenance of power plants. Fortum's operations
focus on the Nordic countries, Russia and Baltic Rim area. In the future, the
fast-growing, liberalizing Euro-Asian energy markets provide additional growth
opportunities. In 2009, Fortum’s sales totaled EUR 5.4 billion and operating
profit was EUR 1.8 billion. Fortum employs approximately 11,500 people.
Fortum’s shares are quoted on NASDAQ OMX Helsinki. Fortum